From Lalit K JhaWashington, Sep 12 (PTI) The group of G-20 countries which includes India has been effective in bringing together “concerted” action that turned around the global economy, US Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew said today.”If you look at what the G-20 has done over the last eight years, during a time of crisis, it brought together concerted action which had the effect of turning around an economy, a global economy, by seeing trillions of dollars of fiscal policy and monetary policy kick in to get the global economy moving,” Lew said during a discussion at the Council on Foreign Relations.”The G-20 has been a forum for working through issues like exchange rate policy. Where even four years ago there was a lot of anxiety about competitive devaluation,” Lew said in response to a question.The G-20 is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies.He said that the US can take some credit for having driven that debate in the direction of growth.”I think we in the US could take some credit for having driven that debate in the direction of growth. And if you look at the commitment the G-20 countries have made to use all policy tools — fiscal, monetary and structural — theres been a decided change in the last six months. Whether its China, Canada, South Korea, countries in Europe — youve seen a move toward using fiscal tools,” he said.He said that in a moment of crisis everyone knows each other.advertisement”There is a group of people who get on the phone, who get on airplanes and go to meetings and can talk with real trust. I think that makes a difference. I think its actually been an important stabilising and growth-driving engagement,” Lew said.”Last issue — climate change. I think if you look at the conversations between the United States and China on climate change has pulled G-20 countries along with it and I think youre going to see the Paris Agreement go into effect in part because of the discussions that took place in a group like the G-20. So I actually think that to judge the G-20 by crisis standards is to miss its real value during the majority of time when the world is not in economic crisis,” he said. PTI LKJ UZM
SOCHI, Russia (AP) — Nancy Kerrigan stood in front of a group of reporters, voice quivering and hands fidgeting as she described her emotions after watching a one-hour retrospective on the figure skating scandal that shook the Olympic earth 20 years ago.There were only a handful of media members in the room with her Friday as opposed to the hundreds that hounded her in 1994 after rival skater Tonya Harding’s ex-husband put together a hit squad to try to keep Kerrigan from skating against Harding in the Lillehammer Olympics. But as she fumbled with her cellphone and tugged at the bottom of her stylish jacket, it was clear that watching the events unfold again in a press conference room in Sochi all these years later brought bubbling back to the surface those same feelings of helplessness and bewilderment.“It made me think about everything all over again,” Kerrigan said after a screening of “Nancy & Tonya,” which will air on NBC on Sunday.“It’s surprising how this whole event and being attacked, it’s changed not just skating, it changed my life. It changed tabloid journalism, reality television. That whole other aspect that I had no part of. It just moved the world, almost, in a different direction. Whether it’s for the better or not, who knows? It just changed everything.”Kerrigan and Harding were two of the brightest stars in American figure skating when they arrived in Detroit for the U.S. championships in 1994, about six weeks ahead of the Lillehammer Games. Kerrigan was knocked out of the competition when an associate of Harding’s ex-husband whacked her on the right knee with a baton. It touched off a staggering scandal that pushed figure skating into the mainstream and made the camera-shy Kerrigan the uncomfortable subject of international fascination.Kerrigan recovered in time to win a silver medal in Lillehammer, while Harding spun out of control.“It’s a little surreal to watch your life and to think, ‘That’s me,’” Kerrigan, who works for NBC as a skating analyst for the Sochi Games, said after watching the show. “It’s almost like a whole other person at this point. I’ve changed. Well, I haven’t changed really much, just moved on. Things in my life are different. I’m basically the same sort of competitive person, but it’s just things move on.”As Harding parlayed the incident into a circus sideshow sort of celebrity that included televised boxing matches and guest commentary spots on hokey TV shows, Kerrigan retreated to the cocoon of family life. She almost never spoke publicly about her experience until just recently as the 20th anniversary approached.During the screening, a dozen or so people sat near the front of the room. But Kerrigan sat near the back, out of sight while she watched the show recap her rise from modest means to skating stardom; the “whack heard ’round the world” that jeopardized her Olympic chances; and Harding talk about a hard-scrabble upbringing while continuing to deny she had any role in the attack on Kerrigan.“I’ve apologized so many times,” Harding said dismissively in the show. “She is not worth my time anymore.”“When you see someone struggle from the beginning, that’s hard and I feel for her,” Kerrigan said. “It doesn’t excuse poor judgment. I hope now, after all this, for not just my sake but her sake, too. She has a family. Let’s move on. You’ve got to allow people that chance to get on with their lives and try to be better and learn from mistakes.”As much as she expressed a desire to move past it Friday, there were times when it was clear that there is still some lingering pain and resentment for Kerrigan.When journalist Mary Carillo, who interviewed both Kerrigan and Harding for the piece, was asked about Harding’s persistent denial of involvement in the assault, Kerrigan interjected with an exasperated chuckle.“Wouldn’t it be weird to change it now?” Kerrigan said.One of the toughest parts for Kerrigan was to see how some portrayed her as “an ice princess,” a robotic, occasionally snarky competitor who was mocked for her cries of “Why? Why?” when she was struck on the knee and when microphones caught her calling a parade at Walt Disney World “corny.”“I remember how that felt,” Kerrigan said. “So watching it, it’s upsetting. Why are people like that? I don’t understand.”She said she’s always been a private person, so when the world turned its camera lens on her in 1994, the harsh light that shined with it was difficult for her to handle. She felt the picture that was painted was unfair and unflattering, a feeling that hasn’t faded over time.“I always wanted to be understood. Who doesn’t want to be liked, right?” Kerrigan said, her voice trailing off as she concluded the interview. “That’s all. I’m sorry.”TweetPinShare0 Shares
(Photo by Streeter Lecka/Getty Images)Tavon Austin was one of the most exciting players in college football during his time at West Virginia, and now he’s ready to rep his alma mater forever. Austin posted a selfie while getting the West Virginia logo tattooed on his chest to Instagram. That is some serious dedication.Austin’s former WVU teammate Bruce Irvin is also a fan of the Rams receiver’s new ink.I see u ! RT @CHIEF_24_: First @BIrvin_WVU11 and now @Tayaustin01 so awesome to see these athletes show #WVU love pic.twitter.com/vDpERY97id— Bruce Irvin (@BIrvin_WVU11) February 18, 2015 It would be hard for Austin to become even more popular with Mountaineer fans, but he may have pulled it off.
reddit most popular football teamThe folks over at Reddit often put together some pretty cool maps that show college football fandom across the country. But the latest graphic will leave you scratching your head just a bit.The below photo shows the most popular college football team that plays in each state. The problem? Anyone could vote – not just people who live in that state.As a result, we have UAB beating out both Alabama and Auburn as the most popular team in the state of Alabama. And Georgia Tech beating out Georgia in Georgia. Check it out: We’re not sure what we learned here – but we’re ready for college football season nonetheless.
Press Trust of India JaipurApril 19, 2019UPDATED: April 19, 2019 21:09 IST Ben Stokes said Rajasthan Royals have lost at the crucial moments (Courtesy by BCCI)HIGHLIGHTSRajasthan Royals have lost six of their eight matches this season so farRR are currently placed seventh in the eight-team standings with four pointsEngland all-rounder feels RR cannot afford to lose anymore in this IPLEngland’s star all-rounder Ben Stokes Friday said his struggling IPL franchise Rajasthan Royals will, from now on, have to “treat every game like a final” if they are to make the playoffs.Stokes, who himself has not been in the best of form, said that having lost six of their eight matches, Rajasthan Royals cannot afford to lose anymore.”Yes, we are in a must-win situation and we have to treat every match as final and which, I guess, puts any sort of negative thought process above our head. We have only one way to go and that is aggressive and positive,” Stokes.Rajasthan, champions in the inaugural edition, are currently placed seventh in the eight-team standings with four points.”If you look at most of the games we lost, we have lost at the crucial moments. In T20 games two-three or four balls can dictate the winner, and unfortunately, we have not been the team to win those critical moments.”But if you lose those moments consistently then you deserve to be where we are. It is unfortunate and disappointing because every player has given his absolute best. It is not lack of effort or lack of commitment.”Conceding that the death bowling of Rajasthan has been disappointing, Stokes said that this was the toughest part of the game.”It is the most difficult part of the game. You need different skills as bowler and keep on working in training. That is why bowlers like Bumrah and Malinga are best bowlers in world. Unfortunately, we have not been able to get our death bowling quite right.”advertisementTalking about Saturday’s match against Mumbai Indians, Stokes said that they know what needs to be done.”We know what we have to do. We will try and stay positive. Our performance in last game was disappointing but we are really a good team. We are living in the moment, not looking into the last games, winning or losing. We have to win every game if we want to be in the final.Also Read | Can’t make plans for great batsmen like Virat Kohli, AB de Villiers: Shreyas GopalFor sports news, updates, live scores and cricket fixtures, log on to indiatoday.in/sports. Like us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter for Sports news, scores and updates.Get real-time alerts and all the news on your phone with the all-new India Today app. Download from Post your comment Do You Like This Story? Awesome! Now share the story Too bad. Tell us what you didn’t like in the comments Tags :Follow IPL 2019Follow Rajasthan RoyalsFollow Ben StokesFollow RRFollow IPL finalFollow IPL playoffs Rajasthan Royals have to treat every game like final, feels Ben StokesBen Stokes said that Rajasthan Royals will need to play every Indian Premier League match left in the season like it the final if they are to reach the IPL playoffsadvertisement
Story Highlights “This will tell us where the bus is at any time, what speed is being driven and the fuel consumption. Today, when the bus leaves the depot we have no sight of it until eight hours later,” Mr. Montague said. Minister of Transport and Mining, Hon. Robert Montague, made the disclosure during his contribution to the 2018/19 Sectoral Debate in the House of Representatives, on May 30. The Jamaica Urban Transit Company (JUTC) is to implement a vehicle tracking and maintenance monitoring system shortly. The Jamaica Urban Transit Company (JUTC) is to implement a vehicle tracking and maintenance monitoring system shortly.Minister of Transport and Mining, Hon. Robert Montague, made the disclosure during his contribution to the 2018/19 Sectoral Debate in the House of Representatives, on May 30.“This will tell us where the bus is at any time, what speed is being driven and the fuel consumption. Today, when the bus leaves the depot we have no sight of it until eight hours later,” Mr. Montague said.He pointed out that the experiment that was done revealed that the buses idle for upwards of 40 per cent of the time, adding that there was one instance where a bus was left running in a depot for four hours.“This not only wastes fuel, but parts wear and cause overheating,” the Minister said.Mr. Montague explained that the monitoring system sends an alarm when a pre-set boundary is exceeded.“Whether it’s speeding, idling or routine maintenance, this system, by reducing idling, can save an estimated $125 million per year. The system will also allow us to electronically count our riders and automatically balance the fare returns,” he said.Meanwhile, the JUTC has started to install Closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras on its buses.This, Mr. Montague said, has allowed the workers to be protected, as when they are accused of poor behaviour the camera is an independent witness.In addition, the Minister said the JUTC is using nitrogen in its tyres, as “this helps to keep them cooler, thus allowing the tyre to last longer and this saves money.”“We intend to introduce more loyalty programmes to increase ridership on our buses. We are about to extend two of our routes to allow them to drive onto the ports, so that the dangerous practice of people crossing the road at Tinson Pen will cease,” Mr. Montague noted.
zoom Nakilat, the shipping arm of Qatar’s liquefied natural gas (LNG) sector, has expanded its joint venture with Greek shipping company Maran Ventures Inc. to include two new LNG vessels. Maran Nakilat Co. Ltd. was established in 2005 with four jointly-owned vessels, and the agreement has been expanded on three occasions. The new agreement increases the number of vessels jointly-owned by Nakilat and Maran Gas to 13, confirming Nakilat’s wholly and jointly-owned LNG fleet as the largest in the world. “ This move strengthens ties between the two entities, and the current agreement allows for further expansion in the future,” said Nakilat’s Managing Director, Abdullah Al Sulaiti.“Nakilat’s strong financial performance has allowed us to increase our fleet size further. Selecting strong partners in the shipping industry has been fundamental to Nakilat’s success, and our relationship with Maran continues to be reinforced since our first agreement in 2005.”The two new vessels are currently under construction in South Korea and, upon delivery in the third and fourth quarters of 2015, will bring the total number of LNG and LPG ships partially or wholly owned by Nakilat to 67. The vessels are Tri-Fuel Diesel Electric (TFDE) propulsion models with capacities of 161,870 cubic metres and 174,000 cubic metres respectively.“We are very proud of our association with Nakilat and look forward to working closely together in the future with their highly professional team in order to explore and develop opportunities in the LNG space,” said John Angelicoussis, owner of Greek Angelicoussis Shipping Group.
The Canadian PressA lawyer for a young man who shot and killed four people and injured seven others in northern Saskatchewan to argue in court today that the offender should serve his sentence as a youth.The shooter was weeks shy of turning 18 when he killed two brothers at their home and then a teacher and a teacher’s aide at the La Loche high school in 2016.He was sentenced as an adult last year to life in prison with no chance of parole for 10 years after pleading guilty to first-degree murder, second-degree murder and attempted murder.Defence lawyer Aaron Fox plans to ask the Saskatchewan Court of Appeal to sentence the shooter as a youth or order a new hearing.The shooter, now 21, is to appear in court by video.A publication ban ordered because of the appeal prevents identifying him.‘Lost soul’In January, Fox filed documents with the Appeal Court that said his client is a “lost soul who slipped through the cracks” as he suffers from different mental disorders and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.Fox argued the sentencing judge focused on the gravity of the crime while failing to consider evidence that spoke to cognitive problems affecting the offender’s maturity, empathy, ability to understand consequences and, above all, his level of blame.“All of which were aggravated by a multitude of surrounding circumstances, not the least of which was the failure of the education system in La Loche, to supply him with the help that he needed,” said the documents.They added that the shooter had an IQ of 68 and, at the time of the shooting, was repeating Grade 10 for a third time.The Crown previously argued in court that the shooter should be sentenced as an adult given the seriousness of the crime and the offender’s circumstances.In her sentencing decision, the judge found the shooting involved sophisticated planning. Court heard the shooter researched different kinds of guns and the damage they could do to people. The night before the shootings he did an online search asking, “What does it feel like to kill someone?”Fox said the shooting was a result of his client’s depression, anxiety and hopelessness.“His ‘sophisticated plan’ was to shoot people at the school and then die,” said the documents.
The Canadian Press QUEBEC — Alberta Premier Jason Kenney shot back at his Quebec counterpart Monday, saying Francois Legault does not understand the history of equalization.On Sunday, Legault defended equalization against criticism from Alberta, saying the program was part of the “original deal” when Quebec entered Confederation in 1867.Kenney pointed out that the first equalization system was introduced in 1957, and the principle of equalization was included in the Constitution in 1982. Legault had said Quebec, which received $13.1 billion in equalization payments in 2019, has a right to equalization, and no province can unilaterally change the formula under which Ottawa distributes the money.He acknowledged that other premiers, whose provinces are running budget deficits, expressed unhappiness at last month’s premiers’ conference in Saskatoon.“There is something I don’t like,” Legault said. “There are premiers of rich provinces who look at Quebec and say: ‘We are sending you a big cheque. We’d rather keep the money here.’ ”In a Facebook post Monday, Kenney corrected Legault on his history and took him to task for opposing new pipelines while his province benefits from Alberta’s oil and gas wealth.“If Ottawa and other provinces want to benefit from Alberta’s resources, then they must not oppose the transport and sale of those resources,” he wrote.
Rabat- The Prosecutor General’s Office has urged prosecutors to be strict with the increasing numbers of toll road violators.Morocco records 5,000 cases of drivers avoiding tolls daily. Due to the growing numbers of toll violations, Mohammed Abdennabaoui, president of the Prosecutor General’s Office, has given instructions not to tolerate the phenomenon.In an official statement, Abdennabaoui wrote that failing to pay road tolls causes major losses to the country’s revenue and hinders traffic flow, leading to accidents at toll stations. Abdennabaoui reminded the public that toll road violations are “a first degree offence that is punishable by a fine ranging from MAD 700 to 1,400 according to Article 184 of Traffic Law 52.05.” He called for the law to be implemented strictly.“Due to these widespread violations and the different harms they cause, I urge you to pay thorough attention to the complaints that the National Motorway Company presents concerning the issue, and to stress on the judicial police to immediately open relevant investigations,” he stated, addressing the King’s prosecutors.
Sharma expressed appreciation for the briefing provided by Professor Peiris and the readiness of the Government of Sri Lanka to discuss concerns that have been raised regarding the impeachment of the Chief Justice. The Secretary-General and Minister of External Affairs agreed to remain in contact on this matter. Commonwealth Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma has telephoned External Affairs Minister Professor GL Peiris and discussed moves in Sri Lanka to impeach Chief Justice, Dr Shirani Bandaranayake.“The Commonwealth at large and Commonwealth governments in particular are set apart by a commitment to uphold in word and deed the shared values and principles which we ourselves have defined. In particular, all Commonwealth governments have recognised the importance of maintaining the separation of powers and the integrity of the roles of the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary. And all Commonwealth governments have recognised that access to justice and an independent judiciary are fundamental to the rule of law,” Sharma said in a statement . “We encourage full and practical application of shared Commonwealth commitments with regard to the impeachment process,” the Secretary-General concluded.
Indisputably one of Britain’s best-loved actresses, Dame Judi Dench has been dazzling audiences and gathering rave reviews for more than 60 years on stage and screen.If she hoped to receive such recognition in America though, she may have been mistaken.A documentary about the life of Dame Judi, has revealed how she was greeted in the United States in recent years as a bright new talent, despite four decades on stage under her belt. One journalist asked her, “What have you been doing until now?”, while Harvey Weinstein, the movie mogul, initially believed he had spotted the new ‘next big thing’ after seeing her performance in Mrs Brown in 1997. Dame Jude Dench began her career as a Shakespearian stage actress Samantha Bond, the actress, said: “There is an extraordinary story she once told me. She had gone to America to do the pre-publicity for Mrs Brown.“And she was being interviewed by the American journalists and they said to her, in all seriousness: ‘We all know you from the Bond films. So what did you do before?’“That’s 40 years of a career where she had to go, ‘well…I’ve done quite a lot of Shakespeare…’“Completely oblivious to the magnificence we’ve all been watching for as long as I can remember.” A Midsummer Night’s Dream performed at the Rose Theatre, Kingston Dame Judi as Queen Victoria in Mrs Brown By then, of course, Dame Judi had played more or less every great Shakespearean role, with six Oliviers and six Baftas already on her mantlepiece.“I saw this amazing performer, who England knew and the world didn’t,” Weinstein told the programme, of his first viewing of Mrs Brown.“And I just go ‘who is this girl?’”Dame Judi went on to be nominated for an Oscar for her performance as Queen Victoria, at the age of 61.She went on to build a new career in Hollywood with the help of Weinstein, with roles in Shakespeare in Love, Iris and Philomena as well as 17 years as M in Bond. The programme, Judi Dench: All The World’s Her Stage, tracked Dame Judi from her first, disastrous appearance as Ophelia straight out of drama school to the modern day, with photographs and footage of her as a young actress.Dame Judi told how a “deep well of sadness in her” had helped her create her most emotional performances, disclosing she enjoyed the variety of the stage because “I don’t have much quiet inside me”.Sir Richard Eyre, the director, said: “Her great gift as an actress is to make people feel she’s accessible to them.”“But she’s much more private and there’s a core of her that is hard to know. And when you do know it, you feel there is something there, a soul that is far from untroubled.” Want the best of The Telegraph direct to your email and WhatsApp? Sign up to our free twice-daily Front Page newsletter and new audio briefings.
William Thomas Cook claimed he was wounded in the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805Credit:Louis Philippe Crepin/Getty Images/The Bridgeman Art Library Want the best of The Telegraph direct to your email and WhatsApp? Sign up to our free twice-daily Front Page newsletter and new audio briefings. The brass telescope was withdrawn from sale following the bogus claimCredit:Hansons/BNPS Charles Hanson, owner of Hansons, said in a statement: “We deeply regret any offence caused by stories relating to the sale of the telescope and bucket, particularly to members of Nelson’s family.”The information comes from stories passed through the generations in our vendor’s family.”Importantly, we are now fully investigating all the academic information we have received about the item’s provenance and will consider all views with due care, respect and diligence. “The item has now been withdrawn from sale pending further investigations.” We consider this claim to be a ridiculous slurProfessor Dominic Tweddle Mrs Burns, 88, who lives in Southport in Queensland, had said: ” It was whispered in our family that Cookie was abused.”Lord Horatio Nelson may well have been called a paedophile today – that’s the sad truth.”But respected Nelson expert Andrew Baines, the deputy director of heritage at the National Museum of the Royal Navy, said after conducting further research he could ‘state categorically’ Cook was not known to Nelson. Professor Dominic Tweddle, director general of the National Museum of the Royal Navy in Portsmouth, labelled the remarks a ‘ridiculous slur’ on Nelson’s memory.He added there was no evidence Cook served on HMS Victory or any other ship at Trafalgar.Hansons has now withdrawn the telescope from sale ‘pending further investigations’.The auctioneers acknowledged there was no evidence that Nelson had abused any boys in his charge and they ‘deeply regretted’ repeating the allegation. Navy historians have attacked an auction house for repeating paedophile slurs about Admiral Lord Nelson, which forced them to withdraw a telescope from sale.The telescope, said to have been gifted by Nelson to a cabin boy, was withdrawn as an upcoming lot after a claim made by the seller sparked outrage.Australian vendor, Audrey Burns, consigned the instrument for sale after it had been handed down through her family from her great-great-great grandfather, William Thomas Cook.Passed down with it were Cook’s ‘tales’ that included him serving as cabin boy to Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar and being abused by him.The allegations were repeated by Hansons Auctioneers of Derbyshire when they advertised the sale, prompting naval experts to intervene. Audrey Burns alleged her great-great-great grandfather, William Thomas Cook served under Lord NelsonCredit:Hansons/BNPS “We are pleased it has been withdrawn from sale.”William Thomas Cook was transported to Australia in 1820 after being convicted of theft and took with him a brass telescope.His scurrilous stories, which probably earned him a few drinks back in the day, also included him being wounded in the face by a splinter at Trafalgar and ripping a piece of the Victory’s flag off Nelson’s coffin at his funeral. Prof Tweddle said: “As custodians of HMS Victory and a keeper of the flame of the immortal memory of Nelson, we consider this claim to be a ridiculous slur.
Western Copper was awarded the 2009 Robert E. Leckie award for the major reclamation program carried out on old abandoned workings at its Casino project. During the reclamation of the old exploration camp at Casino all old buildings, structures, equipment, material, and debris were removed and the area was recontoured to re-establish natural vegetation. Other areas of the property where debris had been allowed to accumulate over the many years of exploration by previous companies were similarly cleared and regraded.The Robert E. Leckie award was created in 1999 to acknowledge innovative approaches to planned reclamation, research, and cooperation between the Government and the mining industry. It is presented annually during the Yukon Geoscience Forum in Whitehorse, Yukon to worthy recipients for exceptional reclamation and restoration efforts. “It is a great honour for us to receive this award and I would like to thank everyone who worked with us to make this event happen” said Dale Corman, President & CEO “While completing the cleanup activities we were committed to go beyond our ordinary obligations and to operate in a way that is consistent with our sustainable development goals. We are focused on developing our projects in a manner that respects and protects the environment and enhances benefits to nearby communities”.Western Copper’s world class Casino project is located 300 km northwest of Whitehorse, Yukon and has a NI 43-101 compliant reserve of 8 Moz of gold, 4,400 Mlb of copper, and 475 Mlb of molybdenum, contained in approximately 1,000 Mt of ore. Western Copper completed a positive pre-feasibility study on the project in June 2008 and is currently focusing on exploration with the goal of increasing the size of the resource. The company is also advancing baseline environmental and socio-economic studies in preparation for submission to the Yukon Environmental and Socio-economic Assessment Board (YESAB), the first step in the permitting process.
Facebook Twitter: @NeosKosmos Instagram Writing serves to preserve languages and history as well as reproduce cultural practices. The Phoenician alphabet, which was created and introduced about 1000BC, is one of the world’s greatest inventions, based on an easily deciphered code making it possible for anyone to read and write. However, many people remained illiterate in the Middle Ages and early modern periods. Printing gradually made books affordable for the masses, not to mention more readable than handwritten texts, where the form of a letter could vary according to the sequence it is found in and the writer’s consistency or mood. Comparing scripts of Perso-Arabic adaptation used for writing Persian, Urdu and other non-Semitic languages, to early books printed in Greek, historians and graphologists found that Hellenes were the only ones who printed texts based on different styles of calligraphy often indecipherable to the uninitiated. Greek typefaces in the 16th and 17th centuries were modelled on contemporary calligraphic practice, featuring forms that joined two or even more letters, and sometimes turned a group of letters into a new sign. Two centuries ago, the same separate letters we use for the Latin alphabet were adopted.Perso-Arabic continued to be written by hand, and there was never any rationalisation of the relation of letter and sounds (several sounds can be represented by more than one letter) or of the multiple graphic forms of letters according to their place in the word and their conjunction with other neighbouring letters. To make matters more complicated, short vowels, though pronounced, are not written. This led, as we can see in the small but thought-provoking exhibition at the Art Gallery of South Australia, to the density and complexity of the Islamic lettering. Persian calligraphy especially is highly refined and abstract, and had a long dialogue with Greek civilisation to the west and Indian to the east. ‘More Ink than Ocean: The Art of Writing in Islam’ will be showcased at Gallery 19b , in the Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide until 27 March 2016. Admission is free. For more information head to www.artgallery.sa.gov.au